Hemp Can Make Better Supercapacitor Electrodes

Almost everyone uses electronics. And most of those electronics uses a battery. However batteries can discharge quite rapidly which requires you to recharge the batteries quite often. I know this happens with my smart phone and tablet all the time.

Researchers at the University of Alberta’s National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT) have discovered that hemp based electrodes for supercapacitors outperform standard supercapacitors by nearly 200%. At present, the preferred material for making electrodes is graphene. Electrodes are what connect an electrical storage medium to the outside world. Some materials can handle high current applications and others allow quick access times. Graphene does both.

Prof. David Mitlin
There is one drawback, however. Graphene costs about $2,000 per gram. Looking for a less costly solution, researchers at NINT, led by chemical and materials engineering Professor David Mitlin, developed a process for converting fibrous hemp waste into a unique graphene-like nanomaterial that outperforms graphene. What’s more, it can be manufactured for less than $500 per ton. “Our work actually opens up a very cheap and mass-producible manufacturing method for graphene quality material — something that has never been achieved before,” says Mitlin.

Carbon is the primary component of most electrodes. Whether it is activated carbon, templated carbon, carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, or graphene, all have been intensively studied as materials for supercapacitor electrodes. Many are expensive to manufacture. They also have limited power characteristics.

“It is becoming well understood that the key to achieving high power in porous electrodes is to reduce the ion transport limitations” says Mitlin. “Nanomaterials .based on graphene and their hybrids have emerged as a new class of promising high-rate electrode candidates. They are, however, too expensive to manufacture compared to activated carbons derived from pyrolysis of agricultural wastes, or from the coking operations.”

Mitlin decided to test hemp bast fiber’s unique cellular structure to see if it could produce graphene-like carbon nanosheets. Hemp fiber waste was heated under pressure at 180 °C for 24 hours. The resulting carbonized material was treated with potassium hydroxide and then heated to temperatures as high as 800 °C, resulting in the formation of uniquely structured nanosheets. Testing of this material revealed that it discharged 49 kW of power per kg of material — nearly triple what standard commercial electrodes supply, 17 kW/kg.

“The resultant graphene-like nanosheets possess fundamentally different properties, such as pore size distribution, physical interconnectedness, and electrical conductivity—as compared to conventional biomass-derived activated carbons,” Mitlin tells the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

“We were delighted at how well this material performed as supercapacitor electrodes,” says Mitlin. “This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large scale production of high performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage, portable electronics, uninterruptable power sources, medical devices, load leveling, and hybrid electric vehicles.”

This breakthrough, if it an be commercialized successfully, could be a significant factor in reducing the cost of electric vehicles and energy storage systems.

Also, Solar researchers are learning to make Solar Cells out of Graphene which is more efficient than Silicone in turning sunlight into electricity. With this new technology of making Graphene from hemp, the cost of manufacturing solar cells will plummet, and the price for energy storage will plummet as well, and the efficiency of both cells, and storage medium rise.

SOURCE: Dave Burkey for the NHA

The Incredible Effects of Cannabis On Weight Loss and Metabolism

The Incredible Effects of Cannabis On Weight Loss and Metabolism

As cannabis becomes more integrated within mainstream culture, millions are becoming more educated on the many benefits of THC and cannabinoids. Not only does cannabis consumption lower insulin resistance, but it also improves fasting insulin and facilitates metabolic function. More athletes and even those engaged in moderate recreational fitness have incredible benefits from daily consumption of the once demonized plant.

Coupled with the pain-relieving effects of both plant and human-derived cannabinoids, cannabis and exercise seem to go hand in hand if you’re looking to improve your physical health.

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high or too low. If you consume a meal which make blood glucose levels rise quickly, insulin secretion often overshoots to compensate and the excess is stored as fat. If you have too much unused glucose in your cells, you will gain weight. If your body isn’t handling insulin properly, you may also gain weight.

A study published in the American Journal of Medicine has found that regular cannabis consumers have fasting insulin (insulin in your body before eating) levels 16% lower than non-consumers. The study also found that cannabis consumers had 17% lower insulin resistance levels and lower average waist circumferences. The researchers concluded that there were significant associations between marijuana use and smaller waist circumferences.

Some athletes swear by using marijuana or its isolated active ingredients, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) as performance-enhancing drugs, saying these substances ease anxiety and increase pain threshold so that they can push themselves during workouts.
Men’s Journal interviewed elite triathlete Clifford Drusinsky, a Colorado gym owner who also leads training sessions fueled by marijuana edibles.

“Marijuana relaxes me and allows me to go into a controlled, meditational place,” Drusinsky told Men’s Journal. “When I get high, I train smarter and focus on form.”

Researchers say that marijuana has an anti-inflammatory effect and that the chemical compounds that come from weed might mimic the body’s natural endorphins, which could help increase our pain threshold like a natural runner’s high and make it easier to push through a tough workout.

THCs Release During Exercise

Contrary to popular thought, it’s not just the endorphins (the compounds which make you feel excited after activities such as exercise and sex) that make physical activity so great. A 2003 study found that exercise actually activates the endocannabinoid system in the same way that the cannabis plant does. The endocannabinoid system is a group of lipids (types of fats) and cell receptors that cannabinoids (compounds like THC and CBD) bind to inside the body. The endocannabinoid system is responsible for easing pain, controlling appetite, and influences mood and memory.

Perhaps as a coping mechanism for easing pain, the body naturally produces its own cannabinoids during exercise. In the aforementioned study, researchers found that human-produced cannabinoids increase as you exercise, causing you to feel a little “high.”

It’s not news to the medical community that the human body stores tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC), the main psychoactive in cannabis, in fat. However, a study put out this August in Drug and Alcohol Dependence has shown that this storage process can give exercisers an extra boost, even up to 28 days after consumption.

As the body begins to burn off fat, small amounts of THC are released back into the bloodstream, producing an effect similar to consuming a small amount of cannabis. THC blood levels increased by approximately 15% immediately after moderate exercise, yet this increase was no longer present two hours after the workout.

Researchers discovered that engaging in exercise can provide you with a stronger buzz and increase the potency of the marijuana. The fact is that working out for just a half hour will trigger an additional stronger high for marijuana users.

This study also showed a correlation between THC release and BMI. The greater the BMI, the greater the increase in THC reintroduced to the body.

Exercise Also Activates the Brain’s Endocannabinoid System

In a 2003 study, researchers uncovered the truth that marijuana and exercise both activate the same endocannabinoid system in the brain.

As a group of lipids, fats, and cell receptors that THC bind to when smoking weed, the endocannabinoid system plays a prominent role in the neurological system for maintaining homeostasis for overall human health. In short, the endocannabinoid system is responsible for easing our pain, controlling our appetite, relieving our stress, influencing our mood, and even regulating our memory. In order to help our body cope with pain from rigorous physical activity, our brain will naturally produce its own version of cannabinoids to stimulate this system during exercise. Just like taking a hit of marijuana, the natural cannabinoids will begin to circulate through the endocannabinoid system when you exercise to produce a high.

Peak blood concentrations of cannabinoids occur in 3-8 minutes after you inhale, as opposed to 60-90 minutes after you eat a weed- or oil-containing edible, with neural effects beginning after 20 minutes and maximizing within a range of 2-4 hours.

THC binds cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), mainly localized in the brain, while cannabinol (CBN) binds CB2, which exists mainly on immune cells. CBD binds neither receptor, but still affects numerous metabolic processes including appetite, pain sensation, immune function, stress reactivity, hormonal secretions, and muscle and fat tissue signaling.

A 2013 adjusted epidemiological study showed that obesity rates are significantly lower for all groups of cannabis users (inclusive of gender and age) compared to those who had not used cannabis in the last 12 months.

The lower Body Mass Index (BMI) of pot-smokers may be explained by an adaptive down-regulation of brain endocannabinoid signaling. While acute THC stimulates appetite, the repeated stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC decreases receptor expression and sensitivity, and long-term stimulation may result in antagonistic rather than agonistic triggering of CB1 receptors, which would dampen hunger signals.

Furthermore, CBD and another component of marijuana, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), may reduce body weight, as animal models of obesity have shown THCV to increase metabolism of fat cells. But before you get excited that marijuana may burn fat, please realize that very few strains on the market have significant levels of THCV, so do your research (such as these four strains of skinny-pot that won’t bring out the munchies).
Source: Waking Time

Big Pharma Not Happy: 80% of Cannabis Users Give Up Prescription Drugs

Big Pharma must be getting seriously worried by the results of a recentsurvey conducted by the Centre for Addictions Research of BC

The pharmaceutical (along with the alcohol) industry is a powerful influences in Washington and has long been lobbying against cannabis legalization in order to protect their profits.

Natural Blaze reports:

However, the tide has turned as decriminalization of medical and recreational cannabis sweeps the nation and the continent. With legalization, more and more people are discovering how this plant can provide a safe alternative to the dangerous effects of prescription pills.

The survey of 473 adult therapeutic cannabis users found that 87% of respondents gave up prescription medications, alcohol, or other drugs in favor of cannabis. Adults under 40 were likely to give up all three of these for medical cannabis.

The most startling revelation, and one that will have Big Pharma running to their crony lawmakers, is that 80% of respondents reported substituting cannabis for prescription drugs.

In addition, 52% said they substituted cannabis for alcohol and 32% said they substituted it for illicit substances. These results indicate a very promising trend of people moving away from dangerously addictive and deadly substances in favor of a miracle plant that has never caused an overdose death.

he finding that cannabis was substituted for all three classes of substances suggests that the medical use of cannabis may play a harm reduction role in the context of use of these substances, and may have implications for abstinence-based substance use treatment approaches. Further research should seek to differentiate between biomedical substitution for prescription pharmaceuticals and psychoactive drug substitution, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind both.

As The Free Thought Project has reported before, the U.S. is in the midst of a painkiller epidemic, with overdose deaths skyrocketing as Big Pharma has secured its grip on government and mainstream medicine. Opioid painkillers and heroin have driven overdose deaths to the point where they are now the leading cause of fatal injuries in the U.S. Alcohol is also killing Americans at a rate not seen in 35 years.

The results of this survey confirm that cannabis is the answer to all of these problems.

Americans for Safe Access has a comprehensive breakdown of conditions that cannabis can treat, and comparisons to prescription pills.

Chronic Pain
Arthritis
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Movement Disorders
Multiple Sclerosis

We are just beginning to confirm the benefits of cannabis on other conditions such as anxiety which is normally treated with pills such as Xanax, insomnia which is normally treated with pills such as Ambien, and antidepressants which are treated with pills such as Zoloft. All of these prescription drugs can cause debilitating addiction or severe side-effects.

Although the war on drugs put a stop to medical cannabis research for decades, in recent years we have seen a surge in studies being performed, as prohibition crumbles and the Schedule 1 classification of “no medical benefit” is exposed as a farce.

Source: My Healthy Kick

Would You Try Marijuana Gum For Chronic Pain?

If upcoming study results are positive, people with multiple sclerosis may have a marijuana gum available for treatment of symptoms by 2017. The gum is made by AXIM Biotechnology, Inc. and is called MedChew Rx.

The marijuana gum has been tested for treatment of pain andspasticity in multiple sclerosis, and the company expects the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency to approve the product for this use. MedChew Rx contains 5 mg of cannabidiol (CBD) and 5 mg of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and will be available by prescription.

Cannabidiol is one of more than 100 cannabinoid chemicals found in marijuana plants. It does not make people high and has been shown to possess multiple health benefits, including an ability to treat seizures and other neurological conditions. THC, another type of cannabinoid, has psychoactive properties as well as medicinal abilities.

How marijuana gum works

According to Dr. George E. Anastassoy, MD, DDS, MBA, chief executive officer of AXIM Biotechnology, the marijuana gum is unique because of its “precise, controlled release mechanism to the oral mucosal capillary circulation,” which means it bypasses the liver. Obtaining the marijuana components via chewing also is safer, associated with fewer side effects, and more socially acceptable than traditional methods, such as smoking or oral consumption, according to Professor John Zajicek, an expert on medical cannabis and the individual responsible for conducting AXIM’s clinical trials on pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

Zajicek noted in a company statement that “Chewing gum is a potentially good route as it would avoid respiratory irritations” that some people experience when smoking and that “it will deliver a prolonged dose without peaking too much.”

The gum also provides “neuroprotective and neurostimulatory benefits” derived from chewing, an activity which itself has a therapeutic impact. In fact, research has shown that chewing (mastication) promotes generation of neurons (neurogenesis), stimulates the cardiovascular system, and enhances oral health, as well as helps with stress reduction and loss of cognition associated with aging.

Source: Health Smog

CHEW HEMP PROTEIN BAR

Ingrediends:

Dry
1½ cup hemp protein powder, chocolate flavor (or original just add more cocoa)
½ cup hemp seeds shelled
½ cup cocoa powder
½ cup walnuts, ground into a coarse flour
½ cup pumpkin seeds, whole
¼ cup chia seeds, ground
¼ cup dried mulberries
2 tablespoons cacao nibs (optional)
2 tablespoons spirulina powder
¼ teaspoon pink himalayan sea salt
dash of ground cinnamon
Wet
1½-2 cups dates, about 20 pitted
½ cup dried tart cherries
5 tablespoons coconut oil, melted
1 heaping tablespoon almond butter
½ cup water (start with ¼ and add gradually)
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Method:
Dry
Coarsely grind walnuts and chia seeds. Pour into a large mixing bowl and combine all remaining dry ingredients (hemp powder, seeds, cocoa, pumpkin seeds, mulberries, cacao nibs, and seasonings). Set aside.
Wet
Combine all wet ingredients in a high speed blender or food processor. This mixture is very thick and sticky so you’ll need a powerful kitchen appliance or mix in small batches. Start with ¼ cup of water in this mixture.
Pour wet ingredients into the large mixing bowl with dry ingredients. This is where you can adjust the water and pay close attention to how much you use.
Using your hands (the best tools for this!), massage and combine the mixture until everything has come together to form a large ball.
If the mixture gets too wet, simply add more cocoa or hemp protein powder. If the mixture isn’t wet enough, try adding more coconut oil or a few more dates. The desired texture is a thick, chewy, sticky bar.
In a 8×8 or 9×9 inch parchment lined pan, evenly spread the protein bar mixture into the pan. Using your hands and fingertips firmly press the mixture into an even layer until it’s even and smooth on top.
Chill for at least 2 hours in the fridge.
Cut into small pieces or 12 whole bars.
Keep some for later in the freezer by wrapping individually in clear wrap or keep in the fridge for later use that week.

Enjoy

Strawberry, Coconut & Lime Smoothie

Ingredients:

1 cup canned light coconut milk
1/2 cup raw cashews, soaked for 2-4 hours, rinsed and drained
1 cup chopped fresh strawberries
1 frozen banana, cut into 1-inch pieces
4 Medjool dates, pitted and roughly chopped
1 1/2 cups ice
1/2 teaspoon lime zest
1 teaspoon hemp hearts, optional

Method:

Combine all of the ingredients in your blender in the order listed above. Blend until smooth, stopping to scrape the sides of the blender if necessary. Pour into two glasses and top each with 1/2 teaspoon of hemp hearts, if desired.
Notes

If your blender seems to be struggling to blend the ingredients you can add more coconut milk 1/4 cup at a time until it runs smoothly.

Enjoy

Hemp Watermelon Smoothie

Ingredients:

1 cup watermelon, cubed
1 tsp. hemp seeds
coconut water to max line
crushed ice, to serve

Method:
Combine the watermelon, hemp seeds, coconut water, and crushed ice in the tall glass. Process in the NutriBullet for 10-12 seconds or until smooth.
Pour in a chilled glass. Garnish with a mint leaf or  slice of watermelon, if desired.

enjoy!

Cannabis Infused Coconut Oil

Infused coconut oil is the preferred method of infusion for many patients and edible companies alike for a number of reasons. Coconut oil is vegan-friendly, produces fast-acting effects, and it can double as an effective topical.

Coconut oil is a vegan “super food.” It is beneficial whether it used orally or topically, and can even be used as a daily detox. Coconut oil is comprised of 90% saturated fat, which once gave it a bad reputation. However, unlike the saturated fat found in red meat, this oil in no way clogs our arteries and provides the body with a readily available source of healthy energy.
In fact, this high fat content is the key when using coconut oil to infuse edibles, topicals, and more. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a fat-soluble molecule and must bind to fat in order to be absorbed into the oil. So, the more fat, the more room for cannabinoids overall. When compared to other butters and oils, infused coconut oil offers you the biggest bang for your buck for potency and nutrition.
Coconut oil has anti-bacterial properties and is in the diets of the most heart-healthy populations in the world. As a ketogenic rich food, it can directly decrease seizures in epileptic children and has shown signs of helping with symptom management for Alzheimer’s patients.
When you consider the natural benefits of coconut oil, cooking cannabis into it only increases the medicinal advantages: cannabis has demonstrated a tremendous ability to reduce seizure occurrences in epileptic children, and it has also shown positive results in treating Alzheimer’s Disease.
What Materials Do I Need To Make Cannabis-Infused Coconut Oil?
coconut oilFirst, you will want to choose your preferred type of coconut oil. If you like the coconut flavor and aroma, choose unrefined virgin coconut oil. Go with the refined oil if you want a more mellow taste.
Your next choice will be determining what strain(s) of cannabis you plan to cook into your oil. You’ll need to decide if you want an Indica, Sativa, or Hybrid strain. Of course, it always helps to know how different strains affect you.
It’s advised that you never use cannabis if you don’t trust the source or if it hasn’t been lab-tested for safety. The important part is not to ingest any impurities like mold, bugs, and/or pesticides.
“First time cooks would want to add, at minimum, a quarter ounce of high quality flower (15%+ THC) into two cups liquid oil.”
Deciding how much cannabis to cook in your oil depends on how much and what strength oil you would like to make. Do not forget to consider how much oil will be needed in your recipe and how strong you want each bite or serving to be! This will require some math on your part.
I will suggest that any first time cook would want to add, at minimum, a quarter ounce (~7 grams) of high quality flower (15%+ THC) into two cups liquid oil – use at least one ounce if the bud has a lot of seeds or a low trichome count. Keep in mind this will create low doses – you want to make sure you are giving yourself a dose with which you’ll feel the effects of your coconut oil, but wont be incapacitated by it.
How To Make Cannabis-Infused Coconut Oil
magical butterIf you plan to make medicated oil regularly, consider investing in a Magical Butter product. My partner and I chose to use the Magical Butter 2 when making our medicated coconut oil we use in our vegan edibles at CANServe – it is such a time saver! Of course you can also infuse your coconut oil using a stovetop and a double broiler, in which case you won’t ever need to turn the dial past three.
Once you have warmed your liquid coconut oil, add your ground up plant matter. There is no need to add seeds but stems are welcome.
“The goal is to keep the oil just below a simmer with regular stirring to prevent any burning at the bottom of the pan.”
The goal is to keep the oil just below a simmer with regular stirring to prevent any burning at the bottom of the pan. It is vital to remember that THC activates as low as 160 degrees F, and it starts breaking down at 350 degrees F, which is also the smoking point of coconut oil. Once the THC begins breaking down, the effects are less noticeable and you are receiving less benefits.
After about 1 hour, you should notice the oil has turned green in shade. This lets you know your oil is infused and is ready to be used. Let it sit a few minutes, if you’ve got the time.
When you are ready to jar the infused coconut oil, prepare a large mason jar with a secure cheesecloth around the lid – a tight rubber band will do the trick. Then pour the green oil slowly into the jar. Be sure to leave enough room for the cheesecloth to hold all the plant material, yet not so deep into the jar that the liquid will rise to reach the base of the cheesecloth.
Once the oil is cooled, squeeze the ball of cheesecloth-wrapped plant matter to get the last few drops of infused coconut oil. Cap the jar and label it so that you don’t forget how potent the oil is. Coconut oil is stable at room temperature or in the fridge.
You now have available medicated lotion, cooking oil, or spread for bread – the possibilities are endless.

Source : Medical Jane

Study:Cannabis May Help With Sleep and Attention In ADHD

Adults with ADHD may use marijuana to cope with problems related to sleep and attention, according to a recent study from the University of California.

Marijuana use is higher among individuals who suffer from ADHD. While the exact reason is still debated, researchers believe that some patients may use marijuana to cope with certain symptoms.

A recent study, led by Jean Gehricke, Ph.D of the University of California’s School of Medicine, adds support to this belief, finding that more frequent marijuana users seem to suffer from more severe ADHD symptoms.

Published in the journal Psychiatry Research, the results also suggest a difference between men and women who use marijuana.

“Men and women may be using marijuana for different reasons, which include an attempt to self-medicate ADHD symptoms and decreased sleep quality, respectively.”

The study involved 56 men and 20 women with ADHD. While the difference between genders was not expected, the authors note that previous studies also show a pattern of self-medication among ADHD sufferers who use marijuana.

Recent findings from a group at the University at Albany suggest that marijuana may help with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity as well.

But researchers have yet to investigate marijuana as a clinical treatment for ADHD, making it unclear whether marijuana is truly helpful and, if so, what dose is required to achieve benefits.

Dr. Gehricke and his colleagues conclude that “greater understanding and further research” on the role of marijuana use in ADHD is needed.

The study received funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program.

Source: Leaf Science